Barony of    North Cadbury                                                                                  Somerset   ·   England                                                                                                                                                                                                           Erected by King William I. about AD 1066                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               'Keeping history alive'                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

  The Lordship of Trenewith and Trewithgy, Cornwall 


            Lordship of  Trenewith and Trewithgy                                                      Probus Parish, Powder Hundred                                                                                                         Cornwall                                         

                          

                        The Manor of Trenewith and Trewithgy                      

The Lordship of the Manor of Trenewith and Trewithgy or also Trenewith-with-Trewithgy in the County of Cornwall, is a feudal lordship with a long history from the time of King John to the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. It is kept alive by the current custodians, the 6th Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury and 23rd Lord and Lady of Trenewith and Trewithgy, on behalf of the nation.

Trenowith and Trewithgy, are two different names or places for the same lordship. Trenowith signifies the New Town, Trewithgy - in English a house surrounded by trees, and lying in the water.  

The Manor of Trenewith and Trewithgy was first mentioned in about 1202 as it was was held by Sir Richard FitzIves, who married the illegimate daughter of King John Lackland. The Lordship was owned for centuries by some of the wealthiest, most powerful and influential families in Cornwall. The Manor of Trenewith (TRENOWITH, TRENOUTH, TRENOWETH, TRENOWTH) from Trenowith, an estate in the parish of Probus, in the hundred of Powder, belonged to the ancient family of that name, which became extinct in the reign of Henry VIII.; the coheiresses married Boscawen, Borlase, and Herle: this barton was inherited by the Herles, and was some time their seat.         

Trenewith and Trewithgy or today just Trenowth or Trenoweth in the parish of Probus is situated near of River Fal and lies 9,7 m (15,6 km) east of Truro and 2m (3,3km) north of the village of Grampound.

     





1202 Sir Richard FitzIves, Knt., 1st known Lord of Trenowth-with-Trewithgy. He was of Degembris in Newlyn East, and Trenoweth-with-Trewithgy in the parish of Probus, Cornwall, England.
In 1202 he rendered account of 100s. for a fine he made with William Briwerre involving one half knight's fee in Cornwall.
He occurs in subsequent Pipe Rolls for Cornwall during the reign of King John for the years, 1203-1205, being assessed for a half-knight's fee.
1204 Sir Richard FitzIves married Isabel Fitzroy, illegitimate daughter of John Lackland, King of England. Fitzroy, "child of the king" was often used as a surname or identifying name for a king's child born outside of marriage. Heir was his eldest son William.

1224 Sir William FitzRichard, Knt., 2nd Lord of Trenewith-with-Trewithgy, of Lanisley (Gulval), Trenoweth-with-Trewithgy (in Probus), Trenoweth-Chammon and Rosneython (in St. Keverne), Degembris and Penhallow (both in Newlyn East), and Pelynt, Cornwall He was evidently still a minor in 1224. He married Rose Bevyle, daughter of Ralph Bevyle, Knt., of Tredaule (in Altarnum), Cornwall. Heir was his daughter Isabel FitzWilliam married in 1285 Stephen Beaupre.

At that time the manor was most probably known as the Manor of Trewithgy. Obviously around 1265-1269 the lordship passed into the possession of the Trenowth family and was named after the family name. The Lordship of Trewithgy at this stage in its history be termed the Lordship of Trenewith and Trewithgy or Lordship of Trenewith-with-Trewithgy or just Lordship of Trenewith (Trenowth).

1265 John de Trenowth, is Lord of Trenewith and Trewithgy; He is first recorded in the Herald's visitations of Cornwall, and heir was his son Stephen.

Date unkown Stephen de Trenowith was married with Joan de Trenaco. They had four sons Michael, Ralph, John and Thomas. The eldest son was Michael de Trenowith and heir of the Lordship. But it appears that the manor came into the possession of Isabel Fitz-William (daughter of Sir William FitzRichard) and through her it became the property of the Beaupre family in about 1291.

1291 Sir Stephen de Beaupre, Knt., of Kelynack (in St. Just) and in right of his wife, Lord of Trenoweth-with-Trewithgy (in Probus) Cornwall, presumably son of John de Beaupré, Steward and Sheriff of Cornwall. They had one son, Ralph, Knt., and one daughter, Joan (wife of John de Trevegnon, Knt.).
He witnessed a charter for Edmund of Almain, Earl of Cornwall, in 1291, and an agreement between Herbert de Pyn, Lord of Milton, and Richard, Prior of Launceston, in 1302. In 1309 he presented Richard de Beaupré to the church of St. Just in Penwith, Cornwall. His son Ralph was heir of the manor.

1319 Sir Ralph de Beaupre, Knt., is Lord of Trenowith-with-Trewithgy. About 1319, he married Margaret de Furneaux, daughter of Sir Matthew de Furneaux, Sheriff of Somerset & Dorset and Maud de Raleigh, daughter of Warin de Raleigh, Knight. They had a son and heir John and a daughter Isabel. 

1334 Sir John de Beaupre, Knt., of Lisley (Gulval), Penhallam (in Jacobstow), and Trenoweth-with-Trewithgy (in Probus) Cornwall, bachelor of Edward the Black Prince (created 1st Duke of Cornwall in 1337, the first English dukedom). He was aged 2 in 1329, minor in 1337.
In 1334 Sir Richard de Champernoun presented to the church of St. Just in Penwith, Cornwall by reason of the minority of John, son and heir of Ralph de Beaupre, Knt. In 1337 the tenants of [John] heir of Ralph de Beaupré were required "to make distraint" ... "and to grind at the mill." In 1349 John presented to the church of St. Just in Penwith, Cornwall. In 1355 he and his wife, Margaret, conveyed the advowson of St. Just in Penwith, Cornwall to the Provost and Chapter of St. Thomas at Glasneyth, Cornwall. He was married with Margaret de Carminow, daughter of John de Carminow, Knt., and Joan, daughter of John Glyn, Knt.;. He died in 1356. They had no issue.

Date unknown It seems that the manor went into the possession of Sir Michael de Trenewith.

1356? Sir Michael de Trenewith, Knt., Knight of the Shire and Justice of Peace 1338-1344. He was married with Margaret Boteler and had four sons Michael, Ralph, John, Thomas. The heir was his eldest son Michael. The lives of Sir Michael Trenewith (Michael Trenewith, the elder) and the younger are difficult to disentangle; both had major tinning interests and a penchant for lawlessness.

TRENOWITH, TRENOUTH, TRENOWETH, TRENOWTH. From Trenowith, an estate in the parish of Probus, where dwelt, in 12 EDW.III., Michael de Trenowith one of the knights of Cornwall; from trenoweth, the new town; or tre-noth, the bare of exposed dwelling.

1359 Michael de Trenewith, inherited the manor of Trenewith and Trewithgy from his father. He was without issue and the lordship passed to his next brother Ralph.

1367 Ralph I de Trenewith, Knight of the Shire; married Margaret Rushell. He was controller of the stannaries, Cornwall 1367-1368; Receiver of the Duchy of Cornwall 1368-1377, for the Princess of Wales 1377-1379, Tax assessor for Cornwall in 1379 and Justice of assize, Cornwall 1380. He had three sons. Ralph died in 1393 and heir was his eldest son John.

Date unknown John de Trenowth, inherited the lordship. He married Jane Trejago, daughter and coheir of Stephen Trejago of Fentongollan and Alice, daughter of Noel Chenduyt. Heir was their eldest son Ralph.                                                                                                                         Most probable the manor went not to Ralph Trenowth, but passed to Isabel Beaupre, daughter and heir of Sir Ralph de Beaupre and heiress to her brother John, and with her to her husband John Longland, Esq.,

1380 John Longland, Esq., Sheriff of Somerset and Dorset, husband of Isabel Beaupré, heiress in 1356 to her brother, John de Beaupre. In 1380 he held his manors and land (except the manor of Degrembis) by the courtesy of England after the death of Isabel, his wife.
Trewithgy. The manor called ‘Trenewith’, held of the king in chief by service of a knight’s fee, of which fee the lady Joan, princess, was dowered long before the death of the said John by a writ to the escheator dated 4 March, 2 Richard II, (1378) so that the manor falls to the princess in wardship for that fee. John died 1380.
The eldest daughter and heir Joan Longland married twice, first:

1380 John Roynon, married Joan Longland in 1380 and hold the lordship. She married (1st) before 1380 John Roynon of Bickfold, Somerset. They had one son, John, and one daughter, Joan. John Roynon died testate. Joan (Longland) Roynon married second:        

1396 Sir Robert Yevelton, Knt., married 1396 as 2nd husband Joan Longland (Roynon). He held the Lordship of the manor in right of his wife Trenowith (Probus) 1396-99. They had no issue.
In the period, 1386-1411, he sued Ralph Trenewith regarding rights of common, estover, etc. in the manor of Trenewith and Trewishannes*, Cornwall; assaults, etc. There is a petition dated 1399-c.1412 from Robert Yevelton, Knight, Lord of the Manor of Trenewith (Probus parish) and Trewishawnes* (Ladock parish), to the king and privy council complaining that Ralph (II) Trenewyth, who has common of pasture in the manor, has trespassed on Robert's lands with a number of followers, and has caused damage; he asks for redress.                                                 Sir Robert died 1428/29.

*Trewishawnes - combines the names of two holdings Trewince (formerly Trewis) and Hewas (formerly Hawnes), both in Ladock parish, bordering on the Probus parish and the manor of Trenewith and Trewithgy.                                     

                                                                                                                                                                   About 1396 Ralph II de Trenewith, of Fentongollan in St. Michael Penkivel and recorded as Lord of Trenowth in St. Probus, Cornwall (brother of John and grandson of Ralph I). Ralph was Justice of Peace 1368-1377 and held considerable estates in the county and had interests in tin. He married first Jane, da. of Sir William Basset; second  Maud, daughter and heir of John Tregorrick.
Ralph Trenewith was Commissioner of Inquiry for Devon and Cornwall 1397-1404. If the findings of an inquisition post mortem held in 1426 are to believed, this Ralph Trenewith was then aged 50, and would, therefore, still have been a minor at the time of the Parliament of 1395. But other evidence suggests that he attained his majority before then. The date of his father’s death is not recorded, but his grandfather, Ralph Trenewith I (a former receiver of the duchy of Cornwall who had represented Truro in 1377 and 1393) died before December 1393 and within three years Ralph II had inherited his lands.
Sometime between 1396 and 1399 Sir Robert Yevelton complained to the chancellor of England that whereas he was Lord of the Manor of ‘Trenewith (Probus) and Trewishawnes (Ladock)’ in right of his wife, Ralph had gone there on a number of occasions with an armed following, felled a quantity of his timber, taken beeswax and honey, collected the ‘tin-toll’ and generally behaved as if he were Lord of the Manor. (It would appear that Yevelton had married his mother, and Ralph resented his intrusion.) By 1398 Trenewith was of sufficient standing to act as surety for the appearance of his uncle, William Bodrugan II, before the King’s Council. His estates included the Manors of Trenowth, Fentongollan, ‘Trewethenek, Tregenser, Rust and Powna’, and his mother, as Lady of the Manor of Fentongollan, had brought to her husband’s family the advowson of St. Michael Penkivel. Ralph’s first marriage was to the daughter of a wealthy knight (Basset left £100 for the marriages of each of his daughters); and in 1405 he and Jane together obtained a licence for an oratory in their ‘mansion’ of Trenowth and in the chapels of the Holy Trinity and of the Blessed Virgin within their demesnes in St. Probus.
Trenewith attended the shire elections to the Parliaments of 1413, 1414, and 1416, all of which were held at Lostwithiel. In 1417 or 1418 he was the subject of a petition to the chancellor from Oliver Tregasowe, claiming that he had disseised him of various properties in Cornwall during the King’s absence in Normandy. Trenewith himself was to campaign in France, even though he must by now have been in his forties. In May 1419 Henry V granted him and his male heirs for his past and future good service the property of two French rebels, situated in the bailliage of Caen and valued at 50 francs a year, in return for which he was expected to provide a man-at-arms and three archers whenever required. Evidently Trenewith was soon back in England, for he attended the parliamentary elections for Cornwall in 1420, and again did so in 1421, 1422 and 1423.
In 1426, on the death of John Chenduyt (Knight of the shire for Cornwall in the same Parliament of 1395), Trenewith was found to be coheir to his estates (most notably the manor of Bodannan and the office of bailiff of the hundred of Trigg), by virtue of his descent from Alice Chenduyt, his own maternal grandmother. But he scarcely had time to take possession of them: he himself died 1427, leaving his son, John, aged 24, as his heir. Ralph’s widow was still living in 1451. She was then possessed of lands worth £4 a year, which if they represented the normal dower portion of one third, would suggest that our Member’s estates had been worth at least £12 annually.

1427 John de Trenowth of Fentongollan, held the manor of Trenewith and Trewithgy from his father. John married Jane daughter and co-heir of Jacob Nansant. They had three children, John the eldest son was the next heir to the lordship after his death in 1444.

1444 John de Trenewith, was Lord of the manor. He married Honor, daughter and heir of William Tregarthen and died without male issue in 1497 when the possessions of this the eldest branch of the family devolved on four daughters and co heirs who married Carminow, St Aubyn, Raynward, Stradling and Godolphin.
John and Honor had three daughters of Matilda, Catherine and Philippa. John died 1497 and Philippa was the heir of Trenewith. She married John Carminowe, son of Walter Carminowe.

1514 John Carminow, Sheriff of Cornwall in 1514. He married Philippa Trenowith. By his marriage to Philippa he inherited large estates which added to his own family wealth made him one of the wealthiest men in Cornwall. John received the Lordship of Trenowith and Trewithgy and also the Fentongollan estate, unfortunately, nothing remains of this ancient manor house. John seems to have enjoyed a quiet life without any wish to obtain political power.
John's son Thomas spoke of his father's hospitality: "he kept open house for all comers and goers, drinkers, minstrells, dancers, and what not, during the Christmas time, and that his usual allowance of provision for those twelve days, were 12 fat bullocks, 20 Cornish bushels of wheat (i.e. 60 Winchesters), 36 sheep, with hogs, lambs, and fowls of all sort, and drink made of wheat and oat malt proportionable; for at that time barley-malt was little known or used in those parts." John and Philippa had nine children. John died 1497, there was a will made 1492. The third son Nicholas inherited the manor of Trenewith-with-Trewithgy after the death of his mother Philippa in 1520.

1520 Nicholas Carminow, inherited the manor. He married Catherine Wolvedon; Nicholas had a grant of the manor of Trenewith from his mother 1520 and of the manor of Trewethynick from his brother John 1532. He was the Commissioner of Musters for Cornwall in 1523. Nicholas dies 1538. His daughter Elizabeth married Nicholas Herle of Trenouth and the manor went to the Herle family.

1538 Nicholas Hearle, hold the lordship. He married Elizabeth Carmynow (daughter and coheir of Nicholas Carmynow), heir was the first son Thomas Hearle or Herle after his fathers dead in 1558.

1558 Thomas Herle, 1st son of Nicholas Herle by Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Nicholas Carminowe of Trenowth. He was a member of the House of Commons.                                     The Herle family, originally from Northumberland, had been settled in Cornwall since the 14th century. Throughout the 15th century it was seated at Prideaux near Luxulian but by the middle of the 16th had made Trenowth its chief residence. Thomas Herle presumably owed his Membership to his family’s influence at Grampound, which was not far from Trenowth.                                                                                                                                              When he entered the Commons in 1558 his experience was limited and his education incomplete: his return may have been intended to broaden his knowledge as much as to commend him to a patron, and between the two sessions of the Parliament he joined the Middle Temple in preparation for a legal career. His father, who apparently never sat in Parliament, had perhaps intended to stand for election on this occasion but put his son forward instead; some such substitution would account for the insertion of his name in a different hand on the indenture. Herle may not have taken to the House and after his father’s death he is not known to have sought election again.
In 1559 Herle succeeded to his family’s small patrimony as well as extensive lands which had been the inheritance of his mother. Five years later Elizabeth Carminowe’s estate was claimed by James Trewynnard, who had married Herle’s aunt Philippa. Herle denied that Trewynnard had any rights in the property, and he referred Keeper Bacon to a partition of Nicholas Carminowe’s lands some 20 years previously, under which certain lands had been allotted to Elizabeth Carminowe. The outcome of Herle’s appeal is not known, but it is almost certain that Trewynnard lost the case. Relations between the two men did not improve with time, as about 1569 Herle alleged in the Star Chamber that Trewynnard and accomplices had assaulted him and his servants, and entered his tinworks at Killifreth, and had taken away tin worth £50. In 1581 Herle brought another action in the same court, this time against Thomas Stephens, who, he claimed, had attacked him and his family on their way back from matins at Probus church: this episode, it seems, was the culmination of a longstanding dispute regarding a right of way over Stephens’s land. Apart from his appointment as escheator, nothing else has been discovered about Herle’s career. Evidently he was still alive in 1602, as Richard Carew lists in The Survey of Cornwall the ‘Herle ... who wedded Trevanion’ among the resident gentlemen of the hundred of Powder. The eventual successor to the family estates was his second son Edward.

Date unknown Edward Herle, inherited the lands from his father. The last confirmed date for the manor is 1602, this is the last known reference to the Lordship and Manor of Trenewith and Trewithgy or Trenowth.

The manorial Lordship title of Trenewith and Trewithgy has not to have been used for 418 years and has been re-conveyed in 2020.                 

2020 Jörg Hubert & Regina Dumke, 23rd Lord & Lady of Trenewith and Trewithgy. The Lordship title with the hereditary rights passed to the 6th Baron & Baroness of North Cadbury.     




A VERY SPECIAL CORNISH LORD IN HISTORY


LORDSHIP OF TRENEWITH AND TREWITHGY PEDIGREE


THE LORD & LADY