The Baron's Residence
HIS LORDSHIP'S RESIDENCE
The current Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury live in Germany. Their present home is near Cologne, in the countryside called 'Bergisches Land'. Both are born and grown up in this region, nearby the district capital Bergisch Gladbach, the city they live in today.
The City of Bergisch Gladbach is situated in the middle of the Bergisches Land, located in North Rhine-Westphalia, east of Cologne in Germany. Bergisch Gladbach is twinned with the English cities Luton in Bedfordshire since 1956 and Runnymede in Surrey since 1965.
The Bergisches Land
The country's name 'Bergisches Land' - Berg Country or Land of Berg, derived from the medieval County and later Duchy of Berg. A beautiful nature with great wooden areas and a long history, which was in 1540 connected with England and the mighty English monarch King Henry VIII.
Normally 'Bergisch' means that a region is very undulating and mountainous and this countryside is it indeed. But actually this region has not get its name from this up and down from the hills, the origin is derived from the noble house of the Counts and Dukes of Berg (Grafen und Herzöge von Berg, (County, later Duchy of Berg). These powerful family reigns in this region from the 11th century until 1609/1614. From the 11th century until 1380 it was the County of Berg. In 1380 King Wenzel (Wenceslaus) raised the counts to the rank of dukes. (latin Ducatus Montenensis). From 1521-1614 it was called the United Duchy of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. In 1614 after a dispute of succession the Duchy felt to the princely family of Pfalz-Neuburg (Wittelsbach). 1806-1813 under the reign of Napoleon it was the Grand Duchy of Berg. Some of the early Counts of Berg were coincidently Archbishops of Cologne. One of the most important of the Counts of Berg was Count Engelbert II. of Berg (b.1185/86 Schloss Burg, d. 7th November 1225 Grevelsberg) at the same time Engelbert I. Archbishop of Cologne. In 1225 he was on the way to consecrate a church and underway he has been murdered by his cousin Friedrich of Isenburg.
Engelbert was declared by papal legate as martyr because he had died in defence of nuns. His body was buried in Cologne Cathedral, but a reliquiary with his heart is treasured and displayed in Altenberg Cathedral. He is venerated as a saint but he was never formally canonised.
The first Counts of Berg resided in Berge Castle in Odenthal-Altenberg in the 'Bergischen Land'. Later a Cistercian Abbey was builded there with the terrific Altenberg Cathedral and the Counts moved to a new builded Castle. This Castle was erected in the near on a mountain over the river Wupper. It was named Neuenberge Castle. Later it was called 'Schloss Burg an der Wupper' (Burg Castle on Wupper) in Solingen.
The Bergische Land and its royal links to England
The fourth wife of King Henry VIII. of England Anne of Cleves (Anna von Kleve, 1515-1557) was a descent from the noble family 'von Berg'. She was the daughter of Duke Johann III. of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1490-1539) and his wife Duchess Maria of Jülich (1491-1543). She was born in Düsseldorf and has been grown up in Burg Castle on Wupper.
In 1540 King Henry VIII. married Anne. She was the first German Queen of England. In the same year the marriage was annulled. Henry VIII. was very generous and assigned her as part of her divorce settlement a house in Lewes (East Sussex) called the 'Anne of Cleves House' (but she never lived there; today it is a little museum), Richmond Palace, Penshurst Place and Hever Castle in Kent. King Henry and Anne became good friends and Anne was an honorary member of the King's family and was referred as "the King's beloved sister". Anne of Cleves died in Chelsea on 28th July 1557 on cancer and is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Burg Castle on Wupper, Solingen - home of Anne of Cleve
Burg Castle on Wupper (Schloss Burg an der Wupper im Bergischen Land), oil on linen c.1900 ©The Baron de Newmarch Collection
Aerial view of Burg Castle from 1980
Just six kilometers (3,7 miles) away fom the Baron's residence is the rich in woodlands location of Altenberg. This little place and former residence of the Counts of Berg lies at the River Dhünn with its famous Gothic Altenberg Cathedral (Altenberger Dom).
The Cathedral is buildet from 1259 until 1379 and also called the Bergisch Cathedral (Bergischer Dom). On this place was in medieval times a Cistercian monastery, founded by Bernhard de Clairvaux. The Cathedral was errected on the same place on which was original the Abbey church in 1133 and also the Cathedral was the Abbey church from the Cistercian monks.
Altenberg Cathedral is the burial ground of the Counts and Dukes of Berg and the Dukes of Jülich-Berg.
Since 1857 Altenberg Cathedral is a double church of the Roman-Catholics and the Protestants (Lutheran) after a order from the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
The rich wooden surrounding of the Bergische Land with it's famous medieval Cathedral and Burg Castle 17 kilometers (10,6 miles) apart, has a huge amount of wonderful trekking routes in a breath-taking countryside. All this includes these magnificent historic buildings based on a long and significant history.