21st DECEMBER 2018
A Royal thank you from Clarence House
The Lord and Lady of North Cadbury are delighted to receive a Royal thank you from HRH Prince Charles, for their birthday wishes they sent to his 70th birthday.
15th DECEMBER 2018
Regalia of the Knightly Order of St Edward the Confessor
His Lordship has commissioned Caroline Easton of 1066 Heraldic Shields to paint for him a set of six coasters with the coat of arms of the Knightly Order of St Edward the Confessor. Caroline has an excellent expertise as a professional heraldic painter for over 15 years and has already painted several heraldic shields for the Baron.
These hand-painted heraldic shield coasters are completed in superior quality. The Baron was very delighted about the workmanship of the coasters, which are a grand addition to his lordship's order regalia.
1066 Heraldic Shields is highly to recommended for painting heraldic shields to other armiger. They have already painted shields among others for members of the British aristocracy, feudal Barons, Lords and Ladies etc.
You can read more about this brilliant heraldic painter and the process how she paints coats of arms at the website of 1066 Heraldic Shields .
10th DECEMBER 2018
Encyclopædia Britannica - The Knowledge of the World
Encyclopædia Britannica celebrates 250 years of continuous operation today. The original encyclopædia was first published on 10th December 1768 in Scotland. Although no print edition has been published since 2010, 100 specialist editors, supported by thousands of freelancers, still work for this enormous knowledge project today.
Two entrepreneurs and an editor published a three-volume reference book in Edinburgh in 1768. The last printed edition had 32 volumes - weighty works, representative hardbacks, which made themselves splendid on the shelf and are still the pride of many owners today.
The digital edition, however, which is financed by advertisements and subscriptions, is of course more up-to-date and lively and passes on part of its knowledge free of charge. Just have a look at www.britannica.com - but be careful, you can spend hours with it. Particularly nice: the Quizzes to arbitrary topics. For children there is its own offer. By the way, Encyclopædia Britannica was the first encyclopædia publisher to publish a digital reference book in 1981.
The anniversary also coincides with the 25th anniversary of Encyclopædia Britannica as the first encyclopædia on the Internet and one of the first major publications on the World Wide Web.
A full edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica should not be missing in any lordly library.
2nd DECEMBER 2018
The Spirit of Christmas is in the air
First Sunday of Advent - Christmas is not far off
Traditionally at the Baron's residence the christmas decorations will done on the 1st Advent weekend. In the living room the christmas tree is decorated with classic English ornaments. Also all the other rooms will be festive decorated.
The first candle of the Advent wreath will enflamed and three further on the next three following sundays until Christmas Eve - a German Christmas tradition.
16th OCTOBER 2018
The House of Lords and its Lordships
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The officially name of the house is the Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled.
In the Kingdom of England, the Magnum Concilium or Great Council, was an assembly convened at certain times of the year when church leaders and wealthy landowners were invited to discuss the affairs of the country with the king. The modern peerage system is a continuation and renaming of the baronage which existed in feudal times. Lords from the Manorial and Feudal System preceded the Peerage and still continue today. The requirement of attending Parliament was at once a liability and a privilege for those who held land as a tenant-in-chief of the king per baroniam, that is to say under the feudal contract of being one of the king's barons, responsible for raising knights and troops for the royal feudal army. The House of Lords developed from the "Great Council" (Magnum Concilium) that advised the King during medieval times. This royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics, noblemen, and representatives of the counties of England and Wales (afterwards, representatives of the boroughs as well). The first English Parliament is often considered to be the "Model Parliament" (held in 1295), which included archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, barons, and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it. The first Lords in the House of Lords came from the Feudal Barons and Earls that managed the people and land around the country. It was established in the reign of the Normans. In ancient times the king would call the Great Council and the King's Court (Curia Regis), semi-professional advisors who would stay behind until the work was done. The former grew into the Parliament (concilium regis in parliamento) and, especially as it split into the House of Lords and House of Commons, thereby assumed the participation of the nobility.
Most of the rights of these title holders have been lost due to their creation or lain dormant so long ago, mostly 1066 at the time of the William the Conqueror (King William I.), but some can date back hundreds of years before.
This right, entitlement or "title", began to be granted by decree in the form of the writ of summons from 1265 and by letters patent from 1388. Additionally, many holders of smaller fiefdoms per baroniam ceased to be summoned to parliament. As a result of this, the barony started to become personal rather than territorial.
Today the Peerage is the collective of all the Lords of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland or persons raised in class to be considered "Peers of the Monarch".
These Lords have a seat in the House of Lords (or referred to ceremonially as the House of Peers) - the Upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
22nd SEPTEMBER 2018
On this day 1515: Birth of Anne of Cleves
Anne of Cleves (German: Anna von Kleve, 22nd September 1515 - 16th July 1557) was Queen of England from 6th January to 9th July 1540. She was the 4th wife of King Henry VIII. Remembered as the 'Flanders Mare', Anne was perhaps Henry's luckiest wife, their marriage was annulled within a year. Anne became known as 'The King's Beloved Sister' and she is buried in Westminster Abbey.
Anne was born in Düsseldorf and grew up in Castle Burg on Wupper (Schloss Burg an der Wupper) in the heart of the Berg Country (Bergisches Land), Germany. She was the second daughter of John III, Duke of Cleve-Jülich-Berg and his wife Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Berg.
The 'Bergisches Land' (Berg Country, region within North Rhine-Westphalia) east of Cologne/River Rhine, is the native country of the current Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury.
15th SEPTEMBER 2018
Autumn is on the way
After this extremely long, hot and dry summer autumn is visible, but further on very summerly. The painting of the well known Bournemouth artist Cyril Osborne depicts a wonderful autumnal atmosphere of Stourhead Park in Wiltshire.
Stourhead is the world-famous landscape garden in England with the stunning Palladian country house - Stourhead House, the former home of the Hoare family. Since 1946 Stourhead is part owned by the National Trust.
The Hoares are a banking family and the bank was founded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare in 1672. C. Hoare & Co. is the oldest private bank in the United Kingdom and the fourth oldest in the World. It is currently managed by the 11th generation of Hoare's direct descendants. Stourhead House and Gardens are to be worth visiting and not far away from North Cadbury in the nearby county of Wiltshire.
Stourhead is breathtaking in any season but on sunny spring and autumn days, the flowering spring shrubs and the flaming autumnal colours of the trees reflected in the magnificent lake are breathtaking. The centre piece of the garden at Stourhead is the lake, which dictates the path you take and the views you enjoy. The garden contains some greek style buildings such as the Temple of Flora, Hercules, Pantheon and Grotto.
7th AUGUST 2018
On the Trail of the Great Detective Sherlock Holmes
The statue of Sherlock Holmes outside Baker Street underground station welcomes travelers. The greatest amd world-famous consulting detective who ever lived, resided in Victorian era at 221B Baker Street where he shared rooms with Dr. John Watson. But actually he has never existed. Sherlock Holmes is a creation of Edinburgh-born Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930). He has written 60 criminal cases, including the best-known case of "The Hound of the Baskervilles", published in "The Strand Magazine".
Sherlock Holmes lived on the first floor at 221B Baker Street from 1881-1904. Most of his cases are filmed with several actors in the roll of the master sleuth, from Basil Rathbone over Christopher Lee to the modern issue with Benedict Cumberbatch.
But the best of all actors was Jeremy Brett, who played Sherlock Holmes extremely authentic in the fabulous Granada Television production "Sherlock Holmes". Granada has produced almost all cases of Holmes, reasonably detailed after the plots of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.
As Brett died far too early in 1995 in the age of 61, the solely and real Sherlock Holmes passed away. Jeremy Brett was Sherlock Holmes!!!
And not to forget the wonderful actors David Burke and Edward Hardwicke, which played Homes friend and assistant Dr. Watson and the memorable Rosalie Williams as Mrs Hudson.
A Visit to 221b Baker Street - The Sherlock Holmes Museum
The Baron's own 'Sherlock Holmes Memorabilia Collection'
6th AUGUST 2018
London from the Air
A walk through London
The Baron and Baroness had a long walk through London in good sunny weather. Above the first photo stop at Scotland Yard's new headquarters on the Victoria Embankment.
On the way to St. Paul's Cathedral.
Afternoon Tea at Fortnum's Diamond Jubilee Salon
The Wallace Collection
The Wallace Collection is a museum which displays the works of art collected in the 18th and 19th centuries by five generations of a British aristocratic family - the first four Marquesses of Hertford and Sir Richard Wallace, the illegitimate son of the 4th Marquess. In the nineteenth century, the Marquesses of Hertford were one of the wealthiest families in Europe. They owned large properties in England, Wales and Ireland, and increased their wealth through successful marriages. Politically of lesser importance, the 3rd and 4th Marquess and Sir Richard Wallace became leading art collectors of their time.
24th JULY 2018
The Life of Servants in Edwardian Manor Houses
In Edwardian times the servants lived downstairs and would rarely seen by the upstairs owners of a manor house or stately home. The most important of the downstairs people was the Butler. He kept the servants away from the owners and the gentry and liaised between the two groups. He was responsible for the servants and answerable to the gentry. The butler - in charge of the house, coachmen and footmen. He looked after the family and the wine cellar.
There were many other servants required to run a to run a large property. Without the servants the house could not function:
The Servants' Rules
Master and Servant Relationship
All Family members should maintain appropriate relationships with the Staff. As Upper Servants will work directly to the Family, a trusting and respectful relationship should be established.
Your Footmen are a proclamation of your wealth and prestige. They are representatives of your Household and Family and as such it is advantageous that you develop a good relationship. However, as Lower Servants, they do not expect to be addressed outside the receipt of instructions.
While the Housemaids will clean the House during the day, they should make every care and attention never to be observed by you doing their duties. If by chance you do meet, you should expect them to "give way" to you by standing still and averting their gaze, whilst you walk past, leaving them un-noticed. By not acknowledging them, you will spare them the shame of explaining their presence.
How to Address your Servants
(Adapted from Channel 4 series 'Manor House', Edwardian Life, 2003)
The following book is a very good recommendation to any Butler in a grand household.
26th JUNE 2018
Mincing Lane, London
Mincing Lane is one of the smaller streets in the City of London. It links Fenchurch Street to Great Tower Street. Mincing Lane is the traditional home of British tea trade. In the late 19th century it was for some years the world's leading centre for tea and spice trading after the British East India Company successfully took over all trading ports from the Dutch East India Company in 1799.
The East India Company ceased to be a commercial enterprise in 1833 and tea became a 'free trade' commodity. On November 20, 1834 the first tea auctions were held in the London Commercial Salerooms on Mincing Lane. Tea merchants established offices in and around the street, earning it the nickname 'Street of Tea'. The last London Tea Auction was held on June 29, 1998.
The captain of the German Imperial Navy Paul Schrader often deployed in Eastern Asia and Pacific, was a great connoisseur of tea. In 1921 he founded the tea- & coffee mail order business Paul Schrader & Co. in Bremen.
The tea merchant offers wonderful tea blends in typical English Tea tradition, which are part of their English tea & food range named Mincing Lane. A great name for these Great British Teas.
9th JUNE 2018
Heraldic Shield of the Order of St Edward the Confessor
Recently, as a knight of the Knightly Order of St. Edward the Confessor (KStE), the Baron of North Cadbury had once again with great pleasure commissioned Caroline Easton of 1066 Heraldic Shields to paint a heraldic shield of the order for him. Caroline has an excellent expertise as a professional heraldic painter for over 15 years and has already painted shields for the Baron several times.
This hand-painted heraldic shield has been completed in superior quality. The Baron was very delighted about the workmanship of this shield, which is a grand addition to the Baron's order regalia.
On 8th June 1042 – Edward the Confessor becomes King of England. Brought up in exile in Normandy, Edward lacked military ability or reputation. His Norman sympathies caused tensions, but much of his reign was peaceful and prosperous.
Edward was responsible for building Westminster Abbey, and he was buried there after his death in 1066.
Stephen de Mandeville, Baron of Erlestoke, was a crusader who originally founded the Knightly Order of St Edward the Confessor, on his way to the Holy Land (where he died in 1154, near Jerusalem), in response to fall of the Crusader State of the County of Edessa on December 24, 1144. The Order was revived in 1414 during the reign of Henry V when English became the language of the Court instead of Norman French and Latin. St Edward was thought appropriate, as he was and remains the only King of England to have been formally canonised as a Saint of the Catholic Church.
The still existing confraternal Baronial Order of Knighthood, the Knightly Order of St Edward the Confessor (Latin: Milites S. Edwardi Confessoris), is open to Christian men and women of all persuasions.
17th MAY 2018
Baron's News Article at Manorial Counsel
It's again a great pleasure for me to could author an article from the creation of the barony for nearly 950 years to the present day for Manorial Counsel Ltd. The newest entry can be read on the website of Manorial Counsel www.manorialcounselltd.co.uk .
Jörg Hubert Baron of North Cadbury
11th MAY 2018
'Downton Abbey'? - 'Upstairs, Downstairs'?
It isn't the kitchen of Mrs Bridges or Mrs Patmore neither the servants indicator bell box of (Mr) Hudson or (Mr) Carson, it's ... From the mid 1700's in large palaces, castles, grand country estates with manor houses or in large townhouses in London, a regiment of servants was needed to run such a property. 'Downstairs' in the servant's quarters a bell board was installed, each bell or even an indicator box was connected 'Upstairs' to most of the major rooms in the house. These were used by family and guests to summon butlers, maids or servants.
The innovation of the call bells and indicator boxes serves the process of keeping the servants at arm's length just as ensuring they are on hand at all times, whereas previously servants would have been present. When a button in a room is pressed the servants bell rings while the corresponding red starred flag twinkles from side to side to alert the staff which room requires assistance. In the Baron's household unfortunately not further in use.
15th APRIL 2018
The Barons & Barony of North Cadbury - Then & Now
Baron of North Cadbury is a feudal title of England. The barony was created by William the Conqueror in about 1066 as a gift for one of his Norman barons - Turstin FitzRolf - who fought for him as his loyal standard-bearer at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066. The name of the barony refers to (North) Cadbury in the county of Somerset.
Turstin FitzRolf, first Baron of Cadeberie, appears to originate from in Bec-de-Mortagne, Pays-de-Caux, Normandy, five miles away south-east of Fécamp, according to the Roman de Rou poem written by the Norman poet Robert Wace (c.1110-after 1174). Robert Wace was born in Jersey and brought up in mainland Normandy (c.1115-1183):
“Tosteins fitz Rou-le-Blanc out non, Al Bec en Caux aveit meison.”
“Turstain fils de Rou le Blanc eut pour nom, au Bec-en-Caux avait maison.” (modern French)
“Turstin FitzRou the White was his name, had home at Bec-en-Caux.” (modern English)
The only existing picture of Turstin FitzRolf is that from the Bayeux tapestry, depicted as standard-bearer of William the Conqueror. After Turstin the barony went to Wynebald de Ballon, a Norman magnate and passed via his daughter Mabilia to Henry de Newmarch and the de Newmarch family. It was a very wealthy family with huge amounts of baronial estates, not only in the county of Somerset. Even many landholdings lay in other adjacent counties. North Cadbury in Somerset was the seat of this extensive barony, but it was not only connected to William the Conqueror (King William I) and the early feudal barons. There are many well-known historic facts as well as numerous legends which base on actual facts. It is said that the nearby hill fort Cadbury Castle in South Cadbury is the most probable site of King Arthur’s famous Court called Camelot and the place where the barony takes its name from. Furthermore Cadbury Castle is a site rich of archaeological interest. Many excavations have taken place in the past and many archaeologic highly interesting artefacts have been unearthed.
A few years ago the chairman of the North Cadbury Village Hall Committee contacted me about a contribution for maintenance works of the local Village Hall, which were urgently required. As the current Lord I’ve seen it as my obligation to give my support for this project. The Village Hall is used very much by the local community and has a professional theatre stage.
After all my wife and I, we had the great honour to be invited several times to North Cadbury. Each time the residents welcomed us as friends. They guided us through this lovely village and the surroundings, which has some magnificent historic landmarks. In late summer 2015 we had also here in Germany, where we live, a return visit from a very nice couple from North Cadbury. We had the great pleasure to show them around in our homeland.
Held on for the future
Some years ago I was very delighted to commission the portrait painter Max Scotto (www.maxscotto.com) to paint a portrait for me. Ever since the Renaissance, the nobility, the gentry and the fashion-conscious have chosen to be recorded for posterity by a portraitist. Portrait genre has thrived in Germany and Britain with artists like Dürer, van Dyke, Reynolds, Gainsborough and Raeburn. This consideration motivated the Baron to commission a Scottish based artist, Max Scotto, to paint his portrait. As I could see on his website portfolio he has an excellent expertise in paintings. In my case the result was a wonderful classical painting and Max told me that he was influenced by the Grand Manner, a style promoted by Sir Joshua Reynolds and he based his colour choices on the palette of Thomas Gainsborough.
The painting is now hanging in our living room. The painter produced an outstanding piece with a very classic taste, depicting me and a view of Cadbury Castle in South Cadbury.
I was so delighted with my portrait that I commissioned the artist again to paint my wife, the Baroness. Mr Scotto, who is based in Scotland, painted a bust composition of the Lady of North Cadbury inside an oval. He told that he felt inspired by some small portraits in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery.
The spandrels were painted directly on the linen canvas and each corner was decorated with Romanesque initials of the Baroness and the artist’s signature, imitating the gold of the superb swept frame which was also handmade according to the painter’s specifications for this piece.
In 2016 I have been asked by Laura Taylor, Managing Partner at Manorial Counsel Ltd. to author a guest blog for their website and regularly appearing news letter. With great pleasure I have written a short article from the creation of the barony for nearly 950 years with the history, legends and developments to the present day; not forgetting the connection to North Cadbury village and its residents.
This article can be read at Manorial Counsel www.manorialcounselltd.co.uk/guest-blog-baron-north-cadbury/.
As successor of the early Barons and as the present Baron and custodian of the barony, I’m obliged to preserve this nearly thousand years old piece of English history for future generations.
I would like to refer you to 'History & Library' to find detailed historic facts of one of the oldest feudal baronies in England which is still existing today.
If you have any enquiries or if you would like to give any comment, please contact my office.
'The future is nothing without the past'.
In this sense and with best wishes –
Jörg Hubert, Baron of North Cadbury
4th APRIL 2018
Spring is coming
This winter was so long and rather cold, but finally spring is on the way with more sunny and warmer weather. Very soon from almost mid-April to late-May bluebells will bloom in woods and gardens across Britain from South England to Scotland.
In woodland areas and in more open habitats in Somerset the common bluebell flourish in early spring, as well as in North Devon - were the Lordship of Blakewell is located near Barnstaple - as a blue sea of flowers. Bluebells are to find anywhere, but for great displays in fine surroundings it's to recommend woods in Somerset like Long Wood, near Cheddar, Thurlbear Wood near Taunton and King's Castle Wood, near Wells.
11th March 2018
A Brief Introduction to Heraldry
Heraldry is the science of armorial bearings and goes back as such to the 12th century. Shields were pictoral name-plates used by feudal lords and knights in battle or medieval tournament to enable themselves to be recognised by their friends and enemies, most of whom who could not read. The use of heraldry was originally a sign on the battlefield, so that knights in fully armour-clad could be easily distinguished one from another. The common practice was for a lord or knight to display the same design on his banner, cloak and shield. From the 13th century coat of arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the higher social classes of Europe, inherited from one generation to the next.
The previous mentioned method of identification became so useful that it was soon adopted in civilian life and underwent a change of form. It was used for showing ownership of property and genuineness of documents. The first authentic shield of arms in recognisable form was used by Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, in 1127.
As a result of the spread of armorial bearings in whole Europe, a new occupation arose: the herald. He was originally a messenger employed by monarchs and noblemen to convey messages or proclamations. A herald assumed the responsibility of learning and knowing the rank, pedigree, and heraldic devices of various knights and lords, as well as the rules and protocols governing the design and description, or blazoning of arms, and the precedence of their bearers. As early as the late thirteenth century, certain heralds in the employ of monarchs were given the title 'King of Heralds', which eventually became 'King of Arms', in Britain to the present day. In other countries as Germany it is practised by heraldic societies.
Every armorial bearings or coat of arms has it's own personal pictoral language of the respective owner, no coat of arms is equal to another - each is one of a kind. The language of heraldry is a unique form of describing a system of shapes, colours and symbols that are expressed in a standardised form. In the 13th and 14th century when closed helmets were the new design in fighting armour, it soon became apparent that knights were unable to recognise their leaders. This problem was solved as they painted fairly simple and bold designs on their shields and also the sur coat, a tabard or cloak that was worn over the armour.
Today heraldry in countries with heraldic authorities continues to be regulated generally by laws granting rights to arms and recognising possession of arms as well as protecting against their misuse. Coat of arms will be granted in conjunction with a letters patent and officially registered in recognised Roll of Arms.
There are two categories of Coats of Arms:
Individual/Family Coats of Arms
These would change with every generation and are legal property transmitted from father to son, also wives and daughters could bear armorial bearings modified to indicate their relation to the current holder of the arms. Whilst there would be a family theme, each subsequent holder would remove or add an element pertaining to themselves, this would reflect who they are or who they wanted to be.
Such as universities, governments, counties, states, guilds, societies, spiritual ecclesiastical authorities etc. would have had arms made up that would have continued through time unchanged.
His Lordship's Family Coat of Arms
hand carved and painted
hand painted Coat of Arms Shield
If you would like to know more about 'Heraldry' and to get your own Coat of Arms Shield you can contact Martin & Caroline Easton at www.1066heraldicshields.co.uk .
6th FEBRUARY 2018
English Single Malt
Usually when we speak from the 'Water of Life', in Scottish Gaelic 'Uisge Beatha' or in Latin 'Aqua Vitae',we mean Scotch Whisky or Irish Whiskey. But there are also wonderful Whisk(e)ys from other parts of Britain and the world.
One of the best is the award winning St. George's English Single Malt from the St. George's Distillery of The English Whisky Co. in Norfolk. The distillery was founded by James and Andrew Nelstrop for the specific purpose of producing the very finest English Single Malt Whisky. St. George’s distillery released the first legal English whisky in over a century in December 2009. The English Whisky Co. source their barley, yeast and water from within England, making this a truly English spirit. St George's English Single Malt is a really excellent 'Water of Life' and a highly recommended whisky for connoisseurs.
Cheers! - Slàinte mhath! - Prost!
26th JANUARY 2018
Painting: View to Glastonbury Tor, Somerset
Oil on board by M. Hughes 1976 ©The Baron de Newmarc
A bright accomplished oil painting of the lovely Somerset countryside with Glastonbury Tor in the distance. The painting deigns a look to the beautiful county of Somerset, which is a mainly agricultural region, typically with open fields of permanent grass surrounded by ditches with willow trees.
Access to individual areas, especially for cattle, was provided by means of "droves", i.e. green lanes, leading off the public highways. Some of the old roads, in contrast to the old hollow ways found in other areas of England, are causeways raised above the level of the surrounding land, with a drainage ditch running along each side.
The town of Glastonbury has mythical associations, including legends of a visit by the young Jesus of Nazareth and Joseph of Arimathea, with links to the Holy Grail, King Arthur and Camelot, identified by some as Cadbury Castle, an Iron Age hill fort.
2nd JANUARY 2018
Mystic Creatures: The White Horses on England's green Hills
The Baron and Baroness of North Cadbury have seen the Westbury White Horse on their journey to North Cadbury. White horses can be seen commonly across many places in Britain. Their origin is largely obscure.
The Westbury White Horse is a hill figure located near the city of Westbury, Wiltshire on the escarpment, an Iron stone hill fort of Salisbury Plain. It is the oldest of White Horses in Wiltshire, but not the oldest of England. It has been restored in 1778, but possibly it has been originally engraved in the ninth century to commemorate King Alfred's victory at the Battle of Ethandun (Edington) 878. At this battle Alfred the Great defeats the Danes.
Another much older hillside chalk figure, the Uffington White Horse featured King Alfred's early life, as he was born not far from Uffington. Archaelogical works has dated the Uffington White Horse to the Iron Age (800 BC–AD 100) or the Bronze Age (1000–700 BC). The Uffington horse is by far the oldest of white horse figures in Britain. Legend has it that King Arthur will one day wake when England is in peril. When Arthur rouses the Uffington Horse will rise up and dance on Dragon Hill, Uffington. A similar creature is featured on old Celtic coins from 150 BC.
In the eighteenth century the new British Royal Family, the House of Hanover, assumed the heraldic symbol of the white horse to their coat of arms. It is argued that the Westbury White Horse may have been carved first in the early eighteen century as a symbol of loyalty to the new Prostestant reigning House.